kdig – Advanced DNS lookup utility

Synopsis

kdig [common-settings] [query [settings]]...

kdig -h

Description

This utility sends one or more DNS queries to a nameserver. Each query can have individual settings, or it can be specified globally via common-settings, which must precede query specification.

Parameters

query
name | -q name | -x address | -G tapfile
common-settings, settings
[query_class] [query_type] [@server]... [options]
name
Is a domain name that is to be looked up.
server
Is a domain name or an IPv4 or IPv6 address of the nameserver to send a query to. An additional port can be specified using address:port ([address]:port for IPv6 address), address@port, or address#port notation. If no server is specified, the servers from /etc/resolv.conf are used.

If no arguments are provided, kdig sends NS query for the root zone.

Query classes

A query_class can be either a DNS class name (IN, CH) or generic class specification CLASSXXXXX where XXXXX is a corresponding decimal class number. The default query class is IN.

Query types

A query_type can be either a DNS resource record type (A, AAAA, NS, SOA, DNSKEY, ANY, etc.) or one of the following:

TYPEXXXXX
Generic query type specification where XXXXX is a corresponding decimal type number.
AXFR
Full zone transfer request.
IXFR=serial
Incremental zone transfer request for specified starting SOA serial number.
NOTIFY=serial
Notify message with a SOA serial hint specified.
NOTIFY
Notify message with a SOA serial hint unspecified.

The default query type is A.

Options

-4
Use the IPv4 protocol only.
-6
Use the IPv6 protocol only.
-b address
Set the source IP address of the query to address. The address must be a valid address for local interface or :: or 0.0.0.0. An optional port can be specified in the same format as the server value.
-c class
An explicit query_class specification. See possible values above.
-d
Enable debug messages.
-h, –help
Print the program help.
-k keyfile
Use the TSIG key stored in a file keyfile to authenticate the request. The file must contain the key in the same format as accepted by the -y option.
-p port
Set the nameserver port number or service name to send a query to. The default port is 53.
-q name
Set the query name. An explicit variant of name specification.
-t type
An explicit query_type specification. See possible values above.
-V, –version
Print the program version.
-x address
Send a reverse (PTR) query for IPv4 or IPv6 address. The correct name, class and type is set automatically.
-y [alg:]name:key
Use the TSIG key named name to authenticate the request. The alg part specifies the algorithm (the default is hmac-sha256) and key specifies the shared secret encoded in Base64.
-E tapfile
Export a dnstap trace of the query and response messages received to the file tapfile.
-G tapfile
Generate message output from a previously saved dnstap file tapfile.
+[no]multiline
Wrap long records to more lines and improve human readability.
+[no]short
Show record data only.
+[no]generic
Use the generic representation format when printing resource record types and data.
+[no]crypto
Display the DNSSEC keys and signatures values in hexdump, instead of omitting them.
+[no]aaflag
Set the AA flag.
+[no]tcflag
Set the TC flag.
+[no]rdflag
Set the RD flag.
+[no]recurse
Same as +[no]rdflag
+[no]raflag
Set the RA flag.
+[no]zflag
Set the zero flag bit.
+[no]adflag
Set the AD flag.
+[no]cdflag
Set the CD flag.
+[no]dnssec
Set the DO flag.
+[no]all
Show all packet sections.
+[no]qr
Show the query packet.
+[no]header
Show the packet header.
+[no]opt
Show the EDNS pseudosection.
+[no]question
Show the question section.
+[no]answer
Show the answer section.
+[no]authority
Show the authority section.
+[no]additional
Show the additional section.
+[no]tsig
Show the TSIG pseudosection.
+[no]stats
Show trailing packet statistics.
+[no]class
Show the DNS class.
+[no]ttl
Show the TTL value.
+[no]tcp
Use the TCP protocol (default is UDP for standard query and TCP for AXFR/IXFR).
+[no]fastopen
Use TCP Fast Open (default with TCP).
+[no]ignore
Don’t use TCP automatically if a truncated reply is received.
+[no]tls
Use TLS with the Opportunistic privacy profile.
+[no]tls-ca[=FILE]
Use TLS with the Out-Of-Band privacy profile, use a specified PEM file (default is system certificate storage if no argument is provided). Can be specified multiple times.
+[no]tls-pin=BASE64
Use TLS with a pinned certificate check. The PIN must be a Base64 encoded SHA-256 hash of the X.509 SubjectPublicKeyInfo. Can be specified multiple times.
+[no]tls-hostname=STR
Use TLS with a remote server hostname check.
+[no]nsid
Request the nameserver identifier (NSID).
+[no]bufsize=B
Set EDNS buffer size in bytes (default is 512 bytes).
+[no]padding[=B]
Use EDNS(0) padding option to pad queries, optionally to a specific size. The default is to pad queries with a sensible amount when using +tls, and not to pad at all when queries are sent without TLS. With no argument (i.e., just +padding) pad every query with a sensible amount regardless of the use of TLS. With +nopadding, never pad.
+[no]alignment[=B]
Align the query to B-byte-block message using the EDNS(0) padding option (default is no or 128 if no argument is specified).
+[no]subnet=SUBN
Set EDNS(0) client subnet SUBN=addr/prefix.
+[no]edns[=N]
Use EDNS version (default is 0).
+[no]time=T
Set the wait-for-reply interval in seconds (default is 5 seconds). This timeout applies to each query attempt.
+[no]retry=N
Set the number (>=0) of UDP retries (default is 2). This doesn’t apply to AXFR/IXFR.
+noidn
Disable the IDN transformation to ASCII and vice versa. IDNA2003 support depends on libidn availability during project building!

Notes

Options -k and -y can not be used simultaneously.

Dnssec-keygen keyfile format is not supported. Use keymgr(8) instead.

Examples

  1. Get A records for example.com:

    $ kdig example.com A
    
  2. Perform AXFR for zone example.com from the server 192.0.2.1:

    $ kdig example.com -t AXFR @192.0.2.1
    
  3. Get A records for example.com from 192.0.2.1 and reverse lookup for address 2001:DB8::1 from 192.0.2.2. Both using the TCP protocol:

    $ kdig +tcp example.com -t A @192.0.2.1 -x 2001:DB8::1 @192.0.2.2
    
  4. Get SOA record for example.com, use TLS, use system certificates, check for specified hostname, check for certificate pin, and print additional debug info:

    $ kdig -d @185.49.141.38 +tls-ca +tls-host=getdnsapi.net \
      +tls-pin=foxZRnIh9gZpWnl+zEiKa0EJ2rdCGroMWm02gaxSc9S= soa example.com
    

Files

/etc/resolv.conf

See Also

khost(1), knsupdate(1), keymgr(8).